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Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Values And Attitudes

Types of Values - Values And Attitudes

   Posted On :  18.05.2018 05:22 am

You may note that values do not operate in isolation. Several values interact with each other to form value system in a society.

Types of Values
 
 
You may note that values do not operate in isolation. Several values interact with each other to form value system in a society. According to Rikeach, value systems are composed of rank-ordered sets of values that fall into two general categories namely terminal values and instrumental values. Terminal values reflect the desired end states of existence whereas instrumental values are related to the choice of behaviour in reaching those end states. Terminal values are desired states of existence that we try to achieve. Preferences like duty, equality and wisdom and a compatible life are some of the terminal values. On the other hand, instrumental values are desirable modes of behaviour that help us reach terminal values. Being polite, courageous, logical, self controlled, ambitious etc., are some of the instrumental values.
 
Values can be categorized on the basis of the level at which they operate.
 
These may be:

-- Personal values which are formed from past experience and interaction with others;
-- Cultural values which are the dominant beliefs held collectively society;
-- Organizational values which are at the heart of organizational culture in terms of shared assumptions, values and beliefs; and 
-- Professional values which are held by the members of an occupational group.

Values may also be classified as the espoused values and enacted values. Espoused values represent the values that we want other to belief we avoid by. Values are socially desirable and so people create a positive public image by claiming to believe in values that others expect them to hold. Contrary to this, enacted values represent the values actually practiced. These values, in fact, guide our decisions and behaviours.
 
It may be recognized that values are functions of preferences. The most important early work in categorizing values was done by Allport and his associates. They identified six types of values. They are:
 
Theoretical-places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach.
 
Economic-emphasizes the usefulness and practicability.
 
Aesthetic-places the highest value on form and harmony.
 
Social-the highest value is given to the love of people.
 
Political-places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence.
 
Religious-concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole.
 
Allport and his associates developed a questionnaire that describes a num¬ber of different situations and asked respondents to rank fixed set of answers. Based on the respondents’ replies, the researchers could rank individuals in terms of the importance they give to each of the six types of values. The result is a value system for a specific individual.

 

Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Values And Attitudes
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