David McClelland gave a model of motivation which is based on three types of needs achievement, power and affiliation. They are stated below:
Clelland’s Three Need Model
David McClelland gave a model of
motivation which is based on three types of needs achievement, power and
affiliation. They are stated below:
1. Need for achievement (n Ach): a drive to excel,
advance and grow
2. Need for power (n Pow): a drive to influence others
3. Need for affiliation (n Aff): a
drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
Some people have a compelling
drive to succeed and they strive for personal achievement rather than the
rewards of success. This drive is called the need for achievement (n ach).
Based on his extensive research into the achievement need, McClelland found
that high achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desire to do
things better. They seek situations where they can attain personal
responsibility for finding solutions to problems, where they can receive rapid
feedback on their performance so they can set moderately challenging goals.
High achievers are not gamblers; they dislike succeeding by chance. They prefer
the challenge of working at a problem and accepting the personal responsibility
for success or failure, rather than leaving the outcome to chance or the
actions of others.
The need for power (n pow) is a
drive to have impact, to be influential and to control others. Individuals high
in n pow enjoy being “in charge”, strive for influence over others, prefer to
be placed into competitive and status oriented situations, and tend to be more
concerned with gaining influence over others than with effective performance.
Power-motivated people wish to create an impact on their organisations and are
willing to take risks to do so.
This need has received the least
attention of the researchers. Affiliation need (nAff) can be viewed as the
desire to be liked and accepted by others. It is the drive to relate to people
on a social basis. Individuals with a high affiliation motive strive for
friendship, prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones, and
desire relationship involving a high degree of mutual understanding.
People possess the above needs in
varying degrees. However, one of the three needs will tend to be more
characteristic of the individual. Individuals with a high need for achievement
thrive on jobs and projects that tax their skills and abilities. Such
individuals are goal-oriented in their activities, seek challenge and want task
relevant feedback. Individuals with high power seek to dominate, influence or
have control over others. McClelland’s research revealed that managers
generally score high on the need for achievement. In other words, motivating
forces for managers lie in the challenge and potential of the job.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Motivation
Last 30 days 1059 views