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Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Personality And Individual Differences

Determinants of Personality - Personality And Individual Differences

   Posted On :  18.05.2018 04:23 am
Determinants of Personality - Personality And Individual Differences

Having understood the concept of personality, now we can move further to know how an individual’s personality is determined? Is it inherited (genetically determined) or is it formed after years of experience? There are no simple answers to these questions.

Determinants of Personality
 
 
Having understood the concept of personality, now we can move further to know how an individual’s personality is determined? Is it inherited (genetically determined) or is it formed after years of experience? There are no simple answers to these questions. In fact, several factors influence the shaping of our personality. Primarily, there are two sources contributing for personality differences. They are i. heredity and ii. environment. Environment has several factors within it like culture, family background, life experiences and the groups we interact with. The following diagram shows how personality is shaped by these factors.


Heredity

 
 
Our personality is partly inherited genetically from our parents. For example, whether we are fair or dark, tall or short, strong or weak are all characteristics that have something to do with heredity. Personality characteristics are partly influenced by environmental factors also like experiences in life. Some traits may have strong genetic component while others may be largely learned.
 

Culture

 
 
Culture refers to the distinctive ways in which people organize and live their lives. Hence people belonging to different societies will have different cultural orientations. Persons born into a particular society are exposed to family and societal values and to norms of acceptable behaviour in the culture of that society. People in the West and those in the East have cultural differences between themselves. In US culture, people are rewarded for being independent while in Japanese culture they are rewarded for being group oriented. These differences are primarily due to variations in cultural norms and expectations of acceptable behaviours in the respective societies. You may also note that though cultural values may have an impact on personality differences among people in different cultures, people born in the same culture may also differ from each other in many characteristics. Managers should keep this in mind when they are dealing with the employees.
 

Family Background

 
 
An important tool of socializing a person into a particular culture is the person’s immediate family. Factors like the socio-economic status of the family, the number of children in the family and birth order, and education of the parents and extended members of the family such as cousins, uncles and aunts influence personality formation. In this regard, you may note that parents’ influence on children’s development is significant and it happens in three ways:
 
1. Through their own behaviours they influence children’s behaviours;
 
2. They serve as role models; and
 
3. They selectively reward and punish the behaviour of children.

Experiences in Life

 
 
Perceptions, ego, temperaments, and self esteem, are all related to ones past experiences.
A complex set of events and interactions with other people determine the level of self esteem of a person. Therefore, some personality traits get changed positively or negatively on the basis of the kind of experiences in one’s life.
 

Groups we interact with

  
The first group of people, a person interacts with is the family. As they grow, people participate in various groups in the life time. The roles and experiences people have as members of different groups lead to personality differences. People influence each other and tend to associate with members who are similar to them in their attitudes and values. The interactions begin first with patents and siblings, then teachers and classmates, later on friends and colleagues. Undoubtedly, the influence of groups and various individuals will shape our personality. For example, if a person wants to become a member of a work group, he has to change himself to conform to the values and norms of that group. If the person is of aggressive type, he may have to become cooperative.

Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Personality And Individual Differences
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