A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes to distort perception.
A number of factors operate to
shape and sometimes to distort perception. These factors emanate from three
sources – the perceiver, the perceived and the situation.
When a person looks at a target,
his interpretation of it is influenced by his personal characteristics like his
needs, past experience, habits, personality, values, and attitudes. A person
with a strong need for ego satisfaction may select out from a situation and
emphasize signals that tend to satisfy the desire for self esteem. Similarly,
negative attitudes toward unions may cause a manager to look for antagonisms in
even routine visits by local union officials to the organization. These and
other personal factors will determine what a person gives attention to in a
situation and how these cues are interpreted as a basis for decision-making and
Characteristics in the target / object
that are being observed may influence what is perceived. The physical
attributes, appearance, and behaviour of other persons in the situation also
influence how the object is perceived. Physical attributes of a person are
related to age, sex, height, and weight. A young person exercising authority in
a situation is viewed differently from an older person doing the same thing.
Personal attire and appearance are also relevant factors in the formation of
The context in which we see the
objects or events is important. The physical, social and organizational
elements of the situation or event may also influence perceptions. A
subordinate calling his boss by the first name may be perceived quite
differently when observed in a typical Indian office as opposed to in a social
reception. Though the perceiver and the perceived are the same, it is the
situation that makes a difference. Such background characteristics of the
situation or context are additional factors that can affect how the situation
is perceived by the different persons. The following Diagram shows the summary
of the factors influencing perception.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Perception And Learning
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