In Japan, life-time employment means limited upward mobility. Movement is predominantly lateral through job rotation. Promotions are based on seniority.
rotation and slow promotion
In Japan, life-time employment means limited upward
mobility. Movement is predominantly lateral through job rotation. Promotions
are based on seniority.
In addition to the output, employees are appraised
on the basis of traits such as creativity, honesty, seriousness, maturity and
cooperation with others. Employees’ performance in the long run is given more
importance, since evaluation is done not exactly on the basis of immediate
performance. Employees are naturally motivated to demonstrate loyalty and
commitment by their attitudes and actions.
iv.Emphasis on work groups
The Japanese system gives far
greater attention to organising tasks around groups than around individuals.
Autonomous work teams are constituted. Tasks are assigned to such teams and the
group members of the team then decide among themselves the best way for
performing the tasks.
v. Open communication
The Japanese system is inherently
designed to foster open communication. Job rotation and emphasis on groups
means that employees build an informal network that facilitates extensive face
to face communication. The physical work setting is also designed to foster
communication. People work in cubicles and in open space which facilitate
interaction and open communication.
vi. Consensus decision- making
In the Japanese model, the manager while taking
decisions discusses them to those who may be affected by the decision. When all
are familiar with the proposal, a formal request for a decision is made, and as
a result of the previous informal preparations, it is easily ratified.
vii. Concern for the employee
Managers spend a great deal of
time talking to employees about everyday matters. They take keen interest in
employees’ needs and problems. In fact, the concern for employees is one of the
parameters on which managers performance is appraised. Japanese companies offer
a wide range of benefits to their employees. Beyond the usual incentives, a
comprehensive offering of cultural, athletic, and recreational activities are
very common. For instance, an annual calendar of office events might include
several overnight trips, monthly Saturday afternoon recreation, and an average
of six office parties- all at the company’s expense.
In addition, welfare measures like subsidized family housing for married,
dormitories for the unmarried, nurseries for pre-school children, scholarships
for children, mortgage loans and the like speak a lot about the concern for
William Ouchi, an American
management thinker, had extensively studied Japanese organisations and gave a
name to their management
practices, called “theory z”. He strongly advocated for the adaptation of Japanese practices for the
American companies to improve productivity. It is appropriate here to
understand how Japanese practices differ from American management practices.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Japanese Management Practices
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