OD development can be traced back to the application of behavioral science and social psychology and to subsequent efforts to apply laboratory training survey-feedback insights into social system.
Approaches to OD
OD development can be traced back
to the application of behavioral science and social psychology and to
subsequent efforts to apply laboratory training survey-feedback insights into
social system. Krut Lewin was instrumental in both the approaches namely
laboratory training and survey feedback.
Two important ways of theorizing
for OD according to Burke and Litwin, are organizational functioning and
organizational change. To them both transformational and transactional factors
affect motivation which in turn affects performance. Transformational changes
occurring in response to external environment directly affects organizational
mission and strategy leadership and culture. In turn, transactional factors
such as structure, system, management practices and climate are affected.
A theoretical model for planned organization change
and development is presented below:
model is predictive. The three implications of this model are: 1. As a starting point change agents
should focus on systematic change in organizational work setting and on individual
behavior change as a key mediator associated with organizational outcome. 2. The results of technological
intervention in organizational setting indicates negative individual behavior
change need not necessarily lead to negative organizational outcome change.
3. This theory provides a better
framework of choosing interventions than the case where intervention is decided
by change agent’s preferences, values and styles.
Potential areas of OD Intervention:
Areas where OD Interventions help include people side of the organizations, the technical and job related
aspects and structural aspects.
side of the organization: OD interventions under people
side encompass a)interpersonal or individual level
-personnel counseling and career planning; b) dyadic (two-person) level solving problems in interpersonal
communication and in superior sub-ordinate relationship; c) group level- helping people to get along
with each other and clarifying perceived incongruencies in goals; and d) family level –helping couples to get
adjusted to new transfers and relocations, and conducting work-shops for dual
career family members to better manage the work-family interfaces. OD techniques used to address “people concerns” are
sensitivity training, transactional analysis, process
consultation, third-party peacemaking, team building, individual counseling,
life and career planning, role clarification, and workshops.
and job related aspects: Areas of OD intervention include
work flow inter-dependencies, job
evaluation and job redesigning and the like. Some of the techniques that come
handy are socio-technical system analysis, flexible production, job evaluation
techniques and role analysis techniques (JET and RAT). Structural
aspects: They include interventions to
change the physical settings, work
group structuring as autonomous (self-managed) work groups, changes in the
extent or formalization and control etc. Other techniques used to increase the
effectiveness of the organization are the management grid and Likert’s system
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Organisational Development (OD)
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