Now-a-days, different techniques are used by managers in making decisions.
Now-a-days, different techniques
are used by managers in making decisions. These techniques, if used properly,
would contribute for the effectiveness of the decisions. Some of the important
techniques are discussed below.
Brainstorming: Brainstorming is the oldest and widely followed technique for
encouraging creative thinking. It was originally developed by A.F. Osborn. It
involves the use of a group. The success of the technique lies in creating a
free and open environment where members of the group participate without any
inhibitions. It starts on the premise that when people interact in a free
environment, the possibility for creative ideas to emerge to higher continuous
interaction through free discussions may result in spontaneous and creative
thinking. The larger are the number of solutions, the fairer are the chances in
locating an acceptable solution. Established research proves that one hour
brainstorming session is likely to generate 50-150 ideas. Of course most of
them may be impracticable; at least, some of them merit serious consideration.
This group process is not without limitations. It consumes lot of time
and therefore is an expensive exercise. Secondly, it emphasizes only quantity
of solutions, which more often than not prove to be superficial. By overcoming
the above limitations, a modern manager can use this as an effective tool.
Synectics: Synectics is a new concept developed by William J.J.Gordon. The term ‘synectics’
is derived from a Greek word which means “Fitting together of diverse elements”.
It starts on the premise of encouraging that this concept encourages novel
thinking for the development of alternatives through putting together different
ideas which are distinct from each other. A given problem is presented to a
group of people with different backgrounds and varied experiences.
It is the responsibility of the
group leader to present the problem and lead the discussion in order to stimulate
creative solutions. This approach ensures on the spot evaluation of ideas. The
leader who is a technical expert assists the group in evaluating the
feasibility of their ideas. Experience shows that synectics is less widely used
than Brainstorming. When the problem
is tough and challenging, this approach is used for effective decision-making.
Operations Research: The origin and development of operations research is attributed
to military operations and applications during Second World War. The war put
tremendous pressure on the use of available scarce resources for various
strategic and tactical operations. The success of operations research in
developing effective options is instrumental in making this approach dependable
in decision-making process. Operations Research employs optimizing models like
Linear Programming, Project Management, Inventory Control, Decision Theory and
Waiting Line Theory.
Operations Research is the
systematic method of studying the basic structure, functions and relationships
of an organisation as an open system. It aims at developing optimal solution
with limited resources in a given situation.
steps in its approach to problem solving are:
1. identification of a problem;
2. construction of a mathematical model to investigate
3. developing a good solution;
4. testing of the model in the light of the data
5. identifying and setting up of control points;
6. implementation of the option as a
solution to a critical problem (putting a solution to work)
In essence, Operations Research attempts to develop the best solution
that will contribute to organisational goals.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Decision Making
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