The need for relationship with other people is one of the strongest and most constant of human drives.
Reasons for Formation of
Companionship. The need for relationship with
other people is one of the strongest
and most constant of human drives. Many research studies have indicated that
the employees who have no opportunity for close social contacts find their work
unsatisfying and this lack of satisfaction often reflects itself in low
productivity and high rate of absenteeism and turnover. Elton Mayo observed
that the employees in a textile plant who worked on isolated jobs were highly
dissatisfied and consistently failed to meet production standards and staggered
rest period helped a little. But when the company permitted these workers to
take rest period as a group, production and satisfaction both increased.
Sense of identification. Workers
get identity in small groups and so
small groups tend to enjoy high morale. Employees working in large departments
where everybody does the same type of job, find it hard to form stable social
groupings compared to those working in small groups.
Source of Information. Informal
group is a source of information to
its members. Informal communication is very fast. A piece of information
available to a member will reach nearly all the members of the group instantly.
The group may develop a special code or language for speedy communication.
Psychological barriers to communication are also overcome by the group.
Job satisfaction. The group’s solution to a problem
may be different from what
management expects and it may even be more efficient. Shortcuts are evolved and
informal channels of communication are established to cut across department
boundaries. Many jobs which appear superficially dull and routine are made
interesting by the group and spontaneity is encouraged and protected by the group.
Protection of members. Groups
help protect their members from outside pressures. Groups often resist
management’s demands for additional output, increased working hours, and higher
quality. Group members often agree on the level of output that each will put
forth so that no member may outperform the others.
Outlet for frustration. An
individual at times, feels tremendous stress
in life and gets frustrated. If he shares his feelings and anxieties with
someone, his tension is released to a great extent. The social relations
provide an important outlet for frustration. An informal
group serves as a safety valve which helps release tension and frustration and
checks the mental breakdown of the individual.
Perpetuation of cultural values. Sometimes,
groups are formed by individuals
belonging to a common cultural background. Such people can preserve their
cultural identify and also feel a sense of security by associating with those
pursuing the same cultural values and social norms. Maintenance of cultural
values will also provide them psychological satisfaction.
Generation of new ideas. Informal
groups are a breeding ground for new
ides as they provide a supportive environment in which the members can engage
themselves in creative thinking. New product teams, task force, quality
circles, etc. are important examples in this regard.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Group Dynamics
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