A clique consists of those people who have frequent interactions and observe certain norms and standards.
A clique consists of those people who have frequent
interactions and observe certain norms and standards. Its purpose is to gain
and control power. The number of members of a clique is restricted to five or six
organizational members. Some members of a clique may also form another group
which may even consist of some persons who are not members of the organization.
Thus, the group known as sub-clique is partially external to the organization.
Datton has identified three types of cliques as follows:
i. Vertical clique: It consists of people working in
the same department drawing
membership regardless of ranks. For example, superior may be a member in a
group consisting mainly of subordinates. Such groups cutting across
hierarchical lines develop because of the earlier acquaintance of people or
because the superior is dependent upon the subordinate for some formal
ii. Horizontal clique: It consists of people of more or
less same rank and working in the same
unit. This is the most common kind of informal group. The members have certain
common interest for whose achievements they follow certain norms and standards.
iii. Mixed or random clique: Such a
group draws members from different
ranks, departments and physical locations that come together for a common
purpose. The members may be residing in the same locality and travelling by the
common bus, or they may be members of the common club.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Group Dynamics
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