A marketing program is made up of the various elements of the marketing mix and the relationships among them.
A marketing program is made up of
the various elements of the marketing mix and the relationships among them. The
concept of the marketing mix emphasizes the fit of the various pieces and the
quality and size of their interactions. There are three degrees of interaction –
consistency, integration and leverage. Consistency is the lack of a poor fit
between two or more elements of the marketing mix. For example, to sell a high
quality product through a low quality retailer would seem inconsistent. While
consistency is the lack of a poor fit, integration is the presence of a
positive, harmonious interaction among the elements of the mix.
For example, heavy advertising can sometimes be harmonious with a high
price, because the added margin from the high price pays for the advertising
and the high advertising creates the brand differentiation that justifies the
Leverage is the situation in which each individual
element of the mix is used to the best advantage in support of the total mix.
Once the elements of the
marketing mix have met the internal tests of consistency, integration and
leverage, the next step is to check that the proposed program fits the needs of
the target customers, the core competencies of the company and the likely
responses of key competitors.
The concept of program/customer
fit encompasses development of a marketing program that fits the needs of the
target-market segments. For that, the market must first be carefully and
explicitly delineated. If the target has not been defined, it cannot be
reached! The program must not only fit the market, but also fit the company. A
marketing program must match the core competencies of the company that is
implementing it. For example, an organization with extensive mass advertising
experience and expertise is more likely to be able to carry out a program that
leans heavily on advertising than an organization less strong in that
An effective marketing program
must not only fit the company’s own core competencies, it must also take
account of competitors’ programs. Competitive/program fit can be defined as the
characteristic of a marketing program that, while building on a company’s
strengths and shielding its weaknesses, protects it from competitors by
capitalizing on their weaknesses, in the process creating a unique market
personality and position.
Like most concepts, the marketing
mix is an abstraction and real marketing programs do not always fit perfectly
the product, price, place and promotion paradigm. In fact, several parts of the
mix fall at the interface of two elements. For example, brand, which is often
views as an aspect of product, is clearly also part of marketing communications
and can serve to help coordinate product policy and communication.
Tags : MARKETING MANAGEMENT - Introduction to Marketing Mix
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