Rinses Likert and his associates of the University of Michigan, had conducted extensive survey of management and leadership patterns in a large number of organizations.
Management Systems and Leadership
Rinses Likert and his associates
of the University of Michigan, had conducted extensive survey of management and
leadership patterns in a large number of organizations. Within the basic style
categories of task orientation and employee orientation, Likert developed a
four level model of leadership effectiveness. These patterns of leadership are
termed Systems of management and are assigned numbers from 1 to 4 to indicate
the stages of evolution in the patterns of management in terms of leadership
System 1 –
System 2 –
System 3 –
System 4 –
description of these systems is given below:
System 1 -
System 1 managers make all the
work – related decisions, and order their subordinates to carry them out.
Standards and methods of performance are also set by the managers. The
communication between the managers and the subordinates is highly formal in
nature and downward in direction. The subordinates have absolutely no say in
any matter in the organization. Such managers are highly autocratic who believe
in threats and punishment to get the things done. They follow strict
supervision over their subordinates.
System 2 - Management
Managers under this system are
also autocratic, but they are not fully authoritative. At times, they give some
flexibility to the subordinates to carry out their tasks within the prescribed
limits. Subordinates who meet or exceed their goals may be rewarded. Managers
adopt patronizing or paternalistic attitude towards the obedient and faithful
subordinates. They are very harsh with the subordinates who do not carry out
System 3 - Management
Under this system, managers set
goals and issue general orders after discussing them with the subordinates.
They take only major decisions and leave the routine decisions to be taken by
the subordinates. Subordinates are free to discuss the work-related matters
with their superiors. Thus, there exists a two-way communication in the
organization. The control system tends to be flexible and goal oriented. More
emphasis is placed on rewards than on punishments to motivate the subordinates.
System 4 - Management
This is an ideal system towards
which organizations should work. The relations between managers and
subordinates are cordial and friendly. The communication system is completely
open. The goals are set and work related decisions are taken by the
subordinates. Group approach is adopted in supervision and control. Thus,
system 4 presents true democratic styles of leadership. The managers are very
supportive in their attitude towards the subordinates. Performance standards
are mutually set by the superior and subordinates. They permit self – appraisal
by the subordinates.
in a wide range of organizations within the frame work of his four systems. He
found that most individual mangers and organizations fit into one or the other
in terms of certain operating characteristics related to such variables as goal
setting, decision making, communication, and control. Likert also sought to
relate his systems of management with certain performance characteristics like
productivity, quality, wastage, and employee turnover and absenteeism. He found
that organizations with System 1 orientation scored very poorly while those
oriented with System 4 scored creditably on these performance characteristics.
He strongly recommended System 4 and regarded it as the best way to develop and
utilize human assets of the organization. Likert also found many managers and
organizations operating in System 2 and 3. For such organizations, he suggested
extensive and intensive leadership training at all levels of management so as to
move into System 4 – management.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Leadership
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