Marketing communications is one of the four major elements of the company’s marketing mix.
Marketing communications is one
of the four major elements of the company’s marketing mix. Marketers must know
how to use advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations,
and personal selling to communicate the product’s existence and value to the
The communication process itself
consists of nine elements: sender,
must know how to get through to the target audience in the face of the audience’s
tendencies toward selective attention, distortion, and recall.
Developing the promotion program
involves eight steps. The communicator must first identify the target audience
and its characteristics, including the image it carries of the product. Next
the communicator has to define the communication objective, whether it is to
create awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, or purchase.
A message must be designed
containing an effective content, structure, format, and source. Then
communication channels both personal and non-personal must be selected. Next,
the total promotion budget must be established. Four common methods are the
affordable method, the percentage-of-sales method, the competitive-parity
method, and the objective-and-task method.
The promotion budget should be
divided among the main promotional tools, as affected by such factors as
push-versus-pull strategy, buyer readiness stage, product life-cycle stage and
company market rank. The marketer should then monitor to see how much of the
market becomes aware of the product, tries it, and is satisfied in the process.
Finally, all of the communications effort must be managed and coordinated for
consistency, good timing, and cost effectiveness.
The objective and importance of
The objective and importance of marketing
• Behaviour modification: Promotion seeks to modify behavior and thoughts
and reinforces the existing behavior. The company hopes to create favourable
image for itself and also to motivate
customers of the
company’s goods and
• Objective to inform: All promotional communications are designed to
inform the largest market about the firm’s product or services. Informative
promotion is more prevalent in the early stages of life cycle of a product or
services. It is necessary to increase the primary demand. The first thing which the customer
needs is the information about the product itself, its features, etc. it leads
the consumer to make a more intelligent purchase decision.
• Objective to persuade: It designed to stimulate purchase. Sometimes firm
wants to create appositive image in the mind of the customer for the long term
gain rather than the immediate purchase. Persuading to customer to purchase
more is the main objective when product reaches the growth stage of the life
cycle because at that time both the consumer formation objective and consumer
retention objective have to be taken simultaneously.
• Reminder objective: It is used to keep the product brand name in the
public’s mind and is used in the maturity stage of the product life cycle. This
type of promotion is used to refresh the memory of the target customers
assuming that they know the product.
• Specific Objective: The goal of promotion is to change the pattern of
demand for a product by behaviour modification – informing, persuading and
reminding. In economic terms, the basic purpose of promotion is to change the
location and shape of the demand curve. It means to shift the demand curve
upward or even to make a change temporarily.
The five major modes of
communications are advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal
selling, and direct marketing.
It is a paid form of non-personal
mass communication by an identified sponsor. The mass media include print
media, audio-visual media, direct mail, bill boards etc. Sponsors may be
non-profit organization, a political candidate, a company or an individual.
Advertising is used when sponsors want to communicate with a number of people
who cannot be reached economically and effectively through personal means.
Personal selling refers to the
face-t-face contact between a seller’s representative and those people with
whom the seller wants to communicate. Non-profit organizations; political
candidates, firms and individuals use personal selling to communicate with the
Sales promotion includes
activities that seek to directly induce or indirectly serve as incentives to
motivate a desired response on the part of the target customers, company sales
people and middle men, and their sales force. These activities add value to the
product. In sales promotion, activities like discount, gifts, contests,
premium, displays and coupons are included.
It is a planned effort by an
organization to influence the attitudes and opinions of a specific group by
developing a long-term relationship. The target audience may be customers,
stock holders, government agencies or special interest groups.
Direct Marketing is a form of
advertising that allows businesses and non-profits organizations to communicate
straight to the customer, with advertising techniques that can include, cell
phone text messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online
display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor
Tags : MARKETING MANAGEMENT - PROMOTION DECISION
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