In a communication process there are two parties –Sender and Receiver and two communication tools –Message and Media.
The communication process
In a communication process there
are two parties –Sender and Receiver and two communication tools –Message and
Media. In the communication process four functions are involved –Encoding,
Decoding, Response and Feedback. Besides these there is noise.
sender: The party who is sending the
message Encoding: The process of putting the
message in to symbolic form Message: The set of symbols that the
sender transmits Media: The communication channel through which the message moves from sender to receiver Receiver: The party receiving the message
sent by the sender Response: The reaction of the receiver
after being exposed to the message Feedback:The part of the receiver’s response communicated back to the sender. Noise: The unplanned distortion during
Developing effective communications A.
Identify the target audience 1.
Image analysis is a major part of
audience analysis that entails assessing the audience’s current image of the
company, its products, and its competitors a)
First step is to measure target
audience’s knowledge of the subject using a familiarity scale b)
Second step is to determine
feelings toward the product using a favorability scale 2.
Specific content of a product’s
image is best determined with use of semantic differential (relevant
dimensions, reducing set of relevant dimensions, administering to asample, averaging
the results, checking
on the image
Determine the communication objectives 1.
Based on seeking of a cognitive, affective, or
behavioral response 2.
Assuming the buyer has high involvement with the
product category and perceives high differentiation within
the category, base objectives on the hierarchy-of-effects model (hierarchy:
awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, purchase) C. Design
the message (AIDA model)
1. Message content—choosing an appeal (rational appeal to audience’s self interest, emotional appeal attempt to stir up either positive or negative emotions, moral appeals are directed to the audience’s sense of what is right and proper)
2. Message structure—one-sided presentation versus two-sided argument.
Message format—must be strong,
based on headline, copy, “sound,” nonverbal clues, color, expression, dress,
Message source —expertise, trustworthiness and
Select the communication channels 1.
Personal communication channels—direct
(advocate, expert and social) 2.
channels—indirect (media, atmospheres, events) E.
Establish the total marketing communications budget 1.
Affordable method 2.
Percentage-of-sales method 3.
Competitive-parity method 4.
Objective-and-task method Deciding
on the marketing communications mix F.
Promotional tools—benefits of
each tool (advertising, sales promotion, public relations and publicity,
personal selling, direct marketing) G.
Factors in setting the marketing
communications mix (type of product market, buyer-readiness stage,
product-life-cycle stage) H.
Measure the communications’
results Managing the integrated marketing communications process A.
A concept of marketing
communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan 1.
Evaluates the strategic roles of
a variety of communications disciplines 2.
Combines these disciplines to provide clarity,
consistency and maximum communications impact through the seamless
integration of discrete messages
Tags : MARKETING MANAGEMENT - PROMOTION DECISION
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