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Human Resources Management - Workers And Managerial Decisions

Types of Workers Participation - Workers And Managerial Decisions

   Posted On :  14.06.2018 11:38 pm

Workers participation in management may take many forms, e.g. Formal participation, which can be –

Types of Workers Participation

Workers participation in management may take many forms, e.g.

1) Formal participation, which can be - 

1. Ascending participation

2. Descending participation

2) Informal participation
 

I    Formal participation


It consists of some plan for labour-management co-operation, i.e., to some degree, recognized as a modus operandi between management and workers, frequently through a union.

1. Workers and management may work together on such plans as

i. Accident prevention

ii. Elimination of waste and defective work

iii. Attendance & Absenteeism

iv. Employee insurance plans, etc.

2. In ascending type of participation, the elected representatives of workers participate in managerial decisions at higher levels such as in the board of directors of the enterprise.

3. In descending type of participation, workers participate in the planning and deciding their own work on the shop floor.

4. Collectively, workers can participate in –

i. Works committees, which are meant for promoting measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between workers and management. A works committee comments upon matters of common interest and attempts to settle any material difference of opinion between the two parties..

ii. Joint – councils of workers and management may decide the issues on which interests of management and workers are identical, e.g., Accident prevention and safety measures, determination of production standards, workers training, welfare measures etc.

iii. Information sharing in which workers are told about certain aspects of the company, e.g., plans for expansion, financial position of the company, etc.

iv. Employees director, i.e., an elected representative of the (employees or) workers is one of the board of directors. 

5. Individually workers can participate in manegement through

Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment

 
Job enlargement means expanding the job –content – adding task elements horizontally. Job enrichment means that additional motivators are added to the job so that it is more rewarding. The purpose of job enlargement and job enrichment is to relieve the boredom of the worker, which flows from excessive specialization in mass- production industries so that the job itself may be source of self-satisfaction. Job enlargement and job enrichment do provide for worker’s participation because they offer freedom and scope to them to use their judgment.
 

Suggestion schemes


Employee’s view on such matters as machine utilization, waste management, energy conservation and safety measures are invited, and reward is given for the best suggestion. This procedure enables the management to arouse and maintain the employee’s interests in the problems of their concern and its management. The suggestion schemes are increasingly used by progressive management.
 

II   Informal Participation


It is more typically at work-group level, where the foreman develops the opportunity for the group of workers to take part in a problem-solving or decision-making process. Typically, the matters on which decisions are taken are those within the prerogatives of the foreman or supervisor.

Importance of Participation


1. The greatest benefit of participative management is that the employee identifies himself or herself with the work and this leads to improved performance.

2. Participation tends to improve motivation because employees feel more accepted and involved in the situation. Their self-esteem, job satisfaction, and cooperation with the management will also improve.
 
3. Reduced conflict and stress, more commitment to goals, better acceptance of a change.

4. Employees may also reduce turnover and absences when they begin to feel that working conditions are satisfactory and that they are becoming more successful in their jobs.

5. The act of participation in itself establishes better communication, as people mutually discuss work problems. The management tends to provide workers with increased information about the organization’s finances and operations, and this helps employees to give better quality suggestions.

6. Participative management has ethical dimensions also. The ethical orientation stems from:

Morality and the impartial promotion of human welfare

Recognize the inherent value and dignity of the human being

The self-worth of the individual enhances

Participation relates to the mental and physical health of employees

Ethical justification for worker participation is derived from negative consequences of hierarchical and authoritarian organizations of work.  
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