The two dimensions of leadership, viz. concern for people and concern for production have been demonstrated by Robert R. Blake and James S.Mouton in the form of a grid. The word ‘Grid’ means an iron grating, a frame work of parallel bars.
The two dimensions of leadership,
viz. concern for people and concern for production have been demonstrated by
Robert R. Blake and James S. Mouton in the form of a grid. The word ‘Grid’ means an iron grating, a frame
work of parallel bars.
Blake and Mouton identified five basic leadership
styles of practicing managers representing various combinations of the
aforesaid two dimensions as shown in the above diagram. It is, however,
important to point out these basic styles are a matter of convenience rather
than a fact. A brief description of these styles is given below.
The 9, 1
managerial Style (Task) People are regarded as an
instrument of production under the 9, 1 management style. It is an autocratic
style of leadership. This style places a heavy emphasis on task and job
requirement. Human relationships and interactions are minimized. Subordinates
are expected to carry out orders with an unquestioning obedience. They are
taken as merely means for doing the tasks assigned to them. Little attention is
given to their development or communicating with them beyond the issue of
instructions and orders. If there is a conflict between a subordinate and the
boss, the goal of the boss is to win.
The 1, 9
Managerial style (Country Club) Under this style of management,
work is done leisurely. At best people are regarded rather than driven.
Subordinates are expected to turn out some work to avoid trouble. The boss is
more of a big brother rather than an autocratic leader. Social relationships
are more important. The group, not the individual is the key in the
organization. The aim is to achieve friendliness and harmony among the members
of the organization.
The 1, 1
Managerial Style (Impoverished) A manager with this orientation
exerts minimum influence on the contacts with group members. He expresses
little concern for production or people. In a supervisory position, he is most
likely to be found executing messenger – carrier functions, communicating
orders from the layer above to the layer below. He is an expert in passing on
blame to others for failures in such a way that he absolves himself from
responsibilities and rarely initiates. His criticism is strictly in self
defense. Minimum involvement in organization’s purpose and with its people is
all that he wants. Through minimum contact and non- involvement, the 1, 1 style
reduces the need to take active steps with respect to managerial responsibilities.
Subordinates or members of the group are left to find for themselves the ways
of doing the job.
The 5, 5
managerial Style (Middle Road) The “people” dimension in the
work situation is as important as the “production” dimension. The 5, 5 style
seeks to maintain a balance between the two. A basic assumption of this style
is that people will work willingly and they are told the reasons for doing so
are explained to them. However, just enough is communicated so that people have
a general sense of what is going on. If too much is told, it is feared that
they might resist. Enough concern is shown for the people so that adequate
production may be achieved. This is seen in the 5, 5 approach to management
development, communication, and performance reviews. Meetings are held to
listen to their suggestions and to create a sense of participation in decision
The 9, 9
Managerial Style (Team) A major difference between 9, 9
style and other managerial styles is in goal setting and its use as a basic
management approach to a large variety of problems. The capability of people in
achieving organizational objectives through commitment is fundamental. In other
words, the 9, 9 orientation aims at integrating the people and production
dimensions of work under conditions of high concern for growth. The key is the
involvement and participation of those responsible for it in planning and
execution of work. This brings about the kind of team spirit that leads to high
organization accomplishment. Each of the five styles given by
Blake and Mouton points out the relative concern for production and people and
implies that the most desirable leadership behavior is 9, 9 i.e., maximum
concern for both production and people. It may be noted that the five positions
emphasized in the Managerial grid are rarely found in their pure form in actual
life. That means, a manager may have a style of 8, 2, or 4, 6 or some other.
Nevertheless, Managerial Grid is widely used as a technique of managerial
training and for identifying various combinations of leadership styles. In essence, the managerial Grid
has given popular terminology to leadership styles within the four quadrants of
the Ohio State Studies. However, there is one basic difference between the two.
In managerial Grid, ‘concern for’ is a predisposition about something or an
attitudinal dimension. Thus, managerial Grid tends to be an attitudinal
model that measures the predispositions of a behavioural model that examines
how leader actions are perceived by others.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Leadership
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