The Simplex Method also called the ‘Simplex Technique’ or the Simplex Algorithm is an iterative procedure for solving a linear programming problem in a finite number of steps.
Linear Programming – Problem Solving [SIMPLEX METHOD]
Method also called the ‘Simplex
Technique’ or the Simplex Algorithm
is an iterative procedure for solving a linear programming problem in a finite
number of steps. The method provides an algorithm which consists in moving from
one vertex / corner point of the region of feasible solutions to another vertex
in such a manner that the value of the objective function at the succeeding
vertex is improved [lesser in case of minimization and more in case of
maximization] than at the preceding vertex. This procedure of jumping from one
vertex to another is then repeated. Since the number of vertices is finite, the
method leads to an optimal vertex in a finite number of steps or indicates the
existence of an unbounded solution.
We will introduce various concepts / definitions
that are related to simplex method in the following paragraphs.
The function that is to be either minimized or
maximized is called as objective function. For example, it may represent the
cost that you are trying to minimize or total revenue that is to be maximized
and so on.
A set of equalities and inequalities that the
feasible solution must satisfy is called as constraints of the problem.
A vector X, which is both feasible (satisfying all
the constraints in the given problem) and optimal (obtaining the largest or
smallest value for the objective function, depends upon the case) is known as
A solution vector, X, which satisfies all the
constraints of the given problem is called feasible solution to the given LPP.
X of (AX=b) is a basic solution if the n components
of X can be partitioned into m “basic” and n-m “non-basic” variables in such a
way that: the m columns of A corresponding to the basic variables form a
nonsingular basis and the value of each “non-basic” variable is 0. The
constraint matrix A has m rows (constraints) and n columns (variables).
The set of basic variables is
called the basis for the given problem.
7. Basic Variables
Basic variables are set of variables, which are
obtained by setting n-m variables values to zero, and are solving the resulting
8. Non-basic Variables
A variable not in the basic solution, not part of
the solution is called non-basic variable.
9. Slack Variable
If we have a ‘less or equal’ to constraint, to
convert that as an equation, a variable is added to the left hand side of the
constraint; the new variable, which is added to the left hand side of the
constraint is called as slack variable.
Ex: 2X1 +
2X1 + 5X2
+ SX3 = 10
variable, SX3, is called as slack variable for the given constraint.
10. Surplus Variable
If we have a ‘greater or equal’ to constraint, to
convert that as an equation, a variable is subtracted from the left hand side
of the constraint; the new variable, which is subtracted, to the left hand side
of the constraint is called as surplus variable.
Ex: 2X1 +
2X1 + 5X2 – SX4 = 10
The variable, SX4, is called as surplus variable
for the given constraint. Therefore, it is a variable added to the problem to
eliminate greater-than constraints.
11. Artificial Variable
To get the initial basis in a ‘greater than or’
equal to constraint, additional variable is added in addition to the surplus
variable. The additional
variable added to a linear programming problem is called as ‘artificial
For some linear programs it is possible for the
objective function to achieve infinitely high / low values, depends upon the
objective. Such an LP is said to have an unbounded solution.
Standard form of LPP
Let the objective function be
Max Z = CX
set of constraints are represented as
the vector obtained by collecting all the right hand side of the constraints.
If we add set of slack variables to all the constraints
and if the constraints are equation, then that particular form is called as
standard form of linear programming problem.
Max Z = CX And the set of constraints are represented as
AX=b Example Consider the following LPP Maximize Z = 15X1 + 10X2 Subject to constraints 4X1+6X2
<=360 3X1+0X2<=180 0X1+5X2
X2>=0 The standard form of the given problem is obtained
by adding slack variable X3 to the first constraint, X4 to the second and X5 to
the third constraint.
+X5=200 X1, X2,
X3, X4 & X5>=0 The modified objective function
is Maximize Z = 15X1 + 10X2 + 0X3 +
14. Canonical form of LPP Let the objective function be Max Z = CX And the
set of constraints are represented as
the vector obtained by collecting all the right hand side of the constraints. This form, where all the constraints are ‘<=’
type for a maximization problem and ‘>=’ type for a minimization problem is
known as canonical form of LPP.
Tags : Operations Management - Introduction to Operations Research
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