“Hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a set of propositions set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena
“Hypothesis may be defined as a
proposition or a set of propositions set forth as an explanation for the
occurrence of some specified group of phenomena either asserted merely as a
provisional conjecture to guide some investigation in the light of established
facts” (Kothari, 1988). A research hypothesis is quite often a predictive
statement, which is capable of being tested using scientific methods that
involve an independent and some dependent variables. For instance, the
following statements may be considered:
1. “Students who take tuitions
perform better than the others who do not receive tuitions” or,
2. “The female students perform as well as the male
These two statements are
hypotheses that can be objectively verified and tested. Thus, they indicate
that a hypothesis states what one is looking for. Besides, it is a proposition
that can be put to test in order to examine its validity.
Characteristics Of Hypothesis:
A hypothesis should have the
following characteristic features:-
1. A hypothesis must be precise and clear. If it is not precise and clear, then the inferences drawn on its basis would not be reliable.
2. A hypothesis must be capable of being put to test. Quite often, the research programmes fail owing to its incapability of being subject to testing for validity. Therefore, some prior study may be conducted by the researcher in order to make a hypothesis testable. A hypothesis “is tested if other deductions can be made from it, which in turn can be confirmed or disproved by observation” (Kothari, 1988).
3. A hypothesis must state relationship between two variables, in the case of relational hypotheses.
4. A hypothesis must be specific and limited in scope. This is because a simpler hypothesis generally would be easier to test for the researcher. And therefore, he/she must formulate such hypotheses.
5. As far as possible, a hypothesis must be stated in the simplest language, so as to make it understood by all concerned. However, it should be noted that simplicity of a hypothesis is not related to its significance.
6. A hypothesis must be consistent and derived from the most known facts. In other words, it should be consistent with a substantial body of established facts. That is, it must be in the form of a statement which is most likely to occur.
7. A hypothesis must be amenable to testing within a stipulated or reasonable period of time. No matter how excellent a hypothesis, a researcher should not use it if it cannot be tested within a given period of time, as no one can afford to spend a life-time on collecting data to test it.
8. A hypothesis should state the facts that give rise to the necessity of
looking for an explanation. This is to say that by using the hypothesis, and
other known and accepted generalizations, a researcher must be able to derive
the original problem condition. Therefore, a hypothesis should explain what it
actually wants to explain, and for this it should also have an empirical
Tags : Research Methodology - Introduction
Last 30 days 1586 views