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Research Methodology - Introduction

Types Of Research Design

   Posted On :  20.05.2018 09:39 pm

There are different types of research designs. They may be broadly categorized as:

Types Of Research Design:
There are different types of research designs. They may be broadly categorized as:
1. Exploratory Research Design;
2. Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design; and
3. Hypothesis-Testing Research Design.

Exploratory Research Design:

The Exploratory Research Design is known as formulative research design. The main objective of using such a research design is to formulate a research problem for an in-depth or more precise investigation, or for developing a working hypothesis from an operational aspect. The major purpose of such studies is the discovery of ideas and insights. Therefore, such a research design suitable for such a study should be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different dimensions of the problem under study. The in-built flexibility in research design is required as the initial research problem would be transformed into a more precise one in the exploratory study, which in turn may necessitate changes in the research procedure for collecting relevant data. Usually, the following three methods are considered in the context of a research design for such studies. They are (a) a survey of related literature; (b) experience survey; and (c) analysis of ‘insight-stimulating’ instances.

2. Descriptive And Diagnostic Research Design:

A Descriptive Research Design is concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group. Meanwhile, a diagnostic research design determines the frequency with which a variable occurs or its relationship with another variable. In other words, the study analyzing whether a certain variable is associated with another comprises a diagnostic research study. On the other hand, a study that is concerned with specific predictions or with the narration of facts and characteristics related to an individual, group or situation, are instances of descriptive research studies. Generally, most of the social research design falls under this category. As a research design, both the descriptive and diagnostic studies share common requirements, hence they are grouped together. However, the procedure to be used and the research design need to planned carefully. The research design must also make appropriate provision for protection against bias and thus maximize reliability, with due regard to the completion of the research study in an economical manner. The research design in such studies should be rigid and not flexible. Besides, it must also focus attention on the following:
a. Formulation of the objectives of the study,
b. Proper designing of the methods of data collection,
c. Sample selection,
d. Data collection,
e. Processing and analysis of the collected data, and
f. Reporting the findings.


3. Hypothesis-Testing Research Design:

Hypothesis-Testing Research Designs are those in which the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationship between two or more variables. These studies require procedures that would not only decrease bias and enhance reliability, but also facilitate deriving inferences about the causality. Generally, experiments satisfy such requirements. Hence, when research design is discussed in such studies, it often refers to the design of experiments.
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