OD program is decided after the consultant meets the top management.
Benefits and Costs of OD
A typical complete OD program
includes the following steps. Initial diagnosis: OD program is decided after the consultant meets the top
management. By means of interviews with various persons the consultant seeks
necessary inputs.Data collections and surveys may be made to know the
organizational climate and organizational behavioral problems. By meeting the
groups away from work, the consultant develops information, from issues pertaining
to conditions that contribute most to job effectiveness, conditions that
interfere with job effectiveness and the changes in the way the organization
operates at present. Action planning and problem
solving: groups use the data to develop specific
recommendations for change. Their discussion focuses on problems in the
organization. Plans made are specific pinpointing who is responsible and by
what time the action shall have been completed.
Team building: during the group meetings the consultant encourages groups
to examine how they work as a team. He also helps them to see the value of open
communication and trust as pre-requisites for improved group functioning. Intergroup Development: first small group teams are developed followed by development
of large groups comprises several teams. Evaluation and follow - up: the consultant helps the organization evaluate results of OD
efforts and develops additional programs in areas where additional results are
needed. If the organization expects to gain the full
benefits of OD, all the steps in the process are to be applied.
Benefits of OD:
Primary advantage of OD as a useful method of organizational intervention is that it tries to
deal with change in the whole organization or major unit of it. Hence, it
ensures widely dispersed improvement. Other benefits include high motivation,
productivity, quality of work, job satisfaction and conflict resolution. OD
also reduces negative factors such as absenteeism and labour turnover.
Limitations (or problems) of OD:
It is time consuming and expensive. Since benefits of OD require long pay-off periods, organizations may not
prefer waiting that long. There are problems of invasion of privacy and
psychological harm in some of the OD techniques. Criticism against OD is that
participants in OD programs are coerced to group attitudes and thereby to
conformity. Yet another criticism is that OD emphasizes too much on behavioral
processes rather than on job performance. Group processes are given priority
over needs of the organization.
Tags : Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Organisational Development (OD)
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