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Human Resources Management - Training & Development

Contours of Training and Development

   Posted On :  13.06.2018 12:54 am

Training and Development (T & D) is a planned, continuous effort by management to improve employees’ competency levels and organizational performance.

Contours of Training and Development

Training and Development (T & D) is a planned, continuous effort by management to improve employees’ competency levels and organizational performance. Training has a short-term focus as it is designed to provide the learners who are especially in the managerial cadre with specific concepts, knowledge, skills and techniques needed for their present jobs. Job related training is offered at various points in an employee’s tenure with a company, on technical or mechanical facet of work. Development on the contrary, refers to the attainment of a generic long-term learning that transcends the present job and applies to a wider life and social situation. Development refers to learning that is not tied to a particular role and which implies growth and a better situation. It is often associated with training outcomes, but it can emerge from any event or experience from which new knowledge is created and then used to improve situations.
Training is also referred to as a process by which any person designated to be a trainer imparts new knowledge, sharpens and strengthens skills and redefines attitudes. Training involves more than just teaching people how to use tools or complete assigned tasks. Good training seeks to make people understand what they feel about themselves, about their work and their contribution to the well-being of those they serve. The basic objective of training is to establish match between employees and their jobs. This is achieved by helping them to bridge gaps between expected and actual performance levels. Training has to help to prevent obsolescence of employees by updating their competencies. Thus, a firm is like an educational institution and continuous learning becomes an integral part of its vivacity.

After the candidates have been selected and placed in appropriate jobs they usually receive orientation training to help them learn about the company. This is also known as ‘induction’ and is the first training an employee has to go through in each organization of his or her employment. However, training in organizations is an unending process. The training needs of employees get continually assessed based on their own requests and their superiors’ feedback in the performance appraisal reports. The top management of an organization would also direct the training department to prepare the employees to face various organizational changes.

In the present context, one may surmise that the individual who feels he is through learning is through in his job also. Jobs today grow faster than the people in them. Helping people to keep up with the pace of this growth is the obligation of training. No program or method would fit all types of needs. Programs and methods should be selected on the basis of how effectively and efficiently they satisfy personal needs and accomplish the developmental objectives of managers and the enterprise.
The choice of a method or a mix of method is a function of a number of considerations such as the nature, size and capabilities of the target group, the aims of the program, the costs involved and whether the program is to impart knowledge, skill, techniques or attitudes. The methods could be sub classified into traditional and modern methods, on-the-job and off-the-job methods, instructor-based and self-learning methods, simulated and real situation based methods. Different combination of methods would fit into each of the above classifications. Based on the stage of a job during which the training is provided, the program may be classified as preparatory training, induction training, mid-term training, refresher training, development centers and re-training. Each method of training has its own strengths and weaknesses. A judicious combination of the following methods alone would help to maximize the effectiveness of programs. 
Tags : Human Resources Management - Training & Development
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