Generally the selling theories emphasized ‘What to do’ and ‘How to do’ rather than ‘Why to do’.
THEORIES OF SELLING
Generally the selling theories
emphasized ‘What to do’ and ‘How to do’ rather than ‘Why to do’. The theories
are based upon the practical and experimental knowledge accumulated from the
years of “ living in the market”, rather than on a systematic, fundamental body
of knowledge. The second or the new approach made use of the findings of the
behavioural sciences. Theories according to the new approach :
theory of selling – seller oriented
set of the circumstances’ Theory of Selling – Seller – oriented.
Formula’ Theory of Selling – Buyer -oriented
Equation’ theory – Buyers’ decision process.
AIDAS Theory of Selling : In this
theory AIDAS stands for
- Attention I - Interest D -
Desire A - Action
This theory tells about the consumer readiness stage. It is a
psychological theory of selling which tells us about the consumer mind – the stages through which the mind passes. These
stages are attention, interest, desire, action and satisfaction. This theory
tells about the fact that the salesman should make the consumer pass through
these five stages so that the purchase should occur.
Phase – I – Securing Attention 1. Get the
appointment with the consumer 2. Salesperson
must show mental alertness and be a skilled conversationalist. 3. He should establish a good rapport at once and should be a conversation
4. He should
do his homework properly. 5.
Good conversation opener causes
the prospect to relax and sets stage for the overall presentation.
Phase –II – Gaining Interest This deals with the evolvement of
the strong interest of the consumer in the product, to develop a contagious
enthusiasm for the product and to give facts and figures about the product.
There should be a strong selling appeal to make their interest in the product.
There should be a strong selling appeal to make their interest in the product
very effective. Also the attitudes and the feelings toward the product should
be clarified. Sales – person must take all these into account in selecting the
appeal to be emphasized.
Phase III –Kindling Desire Here the interest of the consumer
is to be converted into the desire for buying the product. The ways should be
found to face and dispose of the sales obstacles, the consumer objections,
external interruptions, digressive remarks, etc. The consumer should be
satisfied in all respects and all of his doubts should be cleared.
Phase IV – Inducting Action The perfect presentation results
in the readiness of the consumer to buy the product. All this requires
experience of the sales personnel as the buying is not automatic and it should
not be closed until the sales persons are positive that the right time has
come. Most prospects find it easier to shy away from the hints than from frank
requests for an order.
Phase V – Building Satisfaction After the purchase generally the
customer passes through the state of mental cognitive dissonance in post –
purchase anxiety. Now this is the job of the sales person to relieve him of
this tension and convince him that him decision was correct. Building
satisfaction means thanking the customer for the order and also to make the
customer feel delighted and also to assure him of the promises made by the
salesman.‘Right set of circumstances’ Theory of Selling : This theory is the ‘situation
response’ theory which tells that everything was right for the sale. It also
states that the skills of the sales persons have a lot of effect on the sales
to take place. Also, if the sales persons have a lot of effect on the sales to
take place. Also, if the sales person presents the proper stimuli or appeals,
the desired response will result. This theory tells about two types of factors
which constitute the set of circumstances. The factors are internal and
external. This theory stresses the external factors at the expenses of the
internal factors. This is a seller – oriented theory and stresses the
importance of the sales persons in the process of selling of a product. The
major drawbacks of this theory are : 1. It does not take care of the internal
factors. 2. It fails to attach appropriate weight to the response side of the
situation – response interaction.
‘Buying Formula’ Theory of Selling This theory is buyer –oriented
theory. This is a psychological theory and takes care of the buyer – related
problems and revolves round the buyer. This theory explains the cognition
process which goes on in the mind of the buyer when he has to take the decision
regarding to buy or not to buy. This theory has come through various stages of
its development and thus has taken its present picture. When a buying habit is
being established, the buyer must know why the product or service is an
adequate solution to the need or problem, and why the trade name is the best
one to buy. This
theory tells that : 1.The
need should be created/ Emphasized. 2.The relation between the need
and the product or service should be emphasised.
brand image should be created. 4. The need, product/ service and the trade name / brand image should be
associated with each other.
brand loyalty and the customer delight should be emphasized.
‘Behavioural Equation’ Theory This theory takes care of the buyer’s decision
making process and goes in the detail of the process at the micro / internal
level. The buyer goes through various stages of learning process. The essential
elements of the learning process are : 1. Drive (
Motivation ) 2. Cue 3. Response 4. Reinforcement Drives are strong internal
stimuli which impel the buyers’ response. These drives are of two types. They
are 1. Innate drives – psychological or biogenic drives and 2. Learned drives –
social drives. Cues are the weak stimuli that determine when the buyer will
respond. There are 2 types of cues :
cues – activate the decision process. 2. No
triggering cues- influence but does not activate the decision process.
Response is what the buyer does. Reinforcement strengthens the
buyer’s tendencies to make a particular response. Hence this theory takes care of
the behavioral aspects of the buyer and how it influences his decisions and his
learning process. This also tells about the sales person’s role in all this to
make it happen and at the same time it reduces buyer dissonance.
Tags : MARKETING MANAGEMENT - PROMOTION DECISION
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