Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Decision Making

Type of Decisions

   Posted On :  17.05.2018 10:38 pm

Decisions taken by managers may be classified under various categories depending upon the scope, importance and the impact that they create in the organisation. The following are the different types of decisions:

Type of Decisions
 
 
Decisions taken by managers may be classified under various categories depending upon the scope, importance and the impact that they create in the organisation. The following are the different types of decisions:
 

Programmed and Non-programmed Decisions

 
 
Programmed decisions are normally repetitive in nature. They are the easiest to make. Usually these decisions are taken in consultation with the existing policy, rule or procedure which are already laid down in the organisation. For example: making purchase orders, sanctioning of different types of leave, increments in salary, settlement of normal disputes, etc. Managers in dealing with such issues of routine nature usually follow the established procedures.
 
On the other hand, non-programmed decisions are different in that they are non-routine in nature. They are related to some exceptional situations for which there are no established methods of handling such things. For example: Issues related to handling a serious industrial relations problem, declining market share, increasing competition, problems with the collaborator, growing public hostility towards the organisation fall in this category. Problems like these have to be handled in a different way. While different managers reach the same solution in the case of programmed decision because they are guided by the same policy or procedure, the solutions may widely differ in the case of non-programmed decisions. As one moves up in the hierarchy, many of the decisions that managers make are non-programmed in nature.
 
It is important to note that the effectiveness of a manager lies in handling exceptional situations. Such situations call for ingenuity and sound judgment. Surprisingly, many managers get bogged down in the routine issues at the cost of the non-routine issues. The saying that “routine drives out the non-routine” instead of the other way round is true in many organizations. Such a tendency results in devoting less time for the important issues.
 

Operational and Strategic Decisions

 
 
Operational or tactical decisions relate to the present. The primary purpose is to achieve high degree of efficiency in the company’s ongoing operations. Better working conditions, effective supervision, prudent use of existing resources, better maintenance of the equipment, etc., fall in this category. One the other hand, expanding the scale of operations, entering new markets, changing the product mix, shifting the manufacturing facility from one place to the other, striking alliances with other companies, etc., are strategic in nature. Such decisions will have far reaching impact on the organisation. Usually, operating decisions do not need intensive deliberations and huge resources and are taken by managers at the lower levels while strategic decisions require extensive deliberations and huge resources and are taken by top level managers. The focus in the operational decisions is on the short-run or immediate present, while it is on the long-rum in the case of strategic decisions.
 

Organizational and Personal Decisions

 
 
Decisions taken by managers in the ordinary course of business in their capacity as managers relating to the organizational issues are organizational decisions. For example: decisions regarding introducing a new incentive system, transferring an employee, reallocation or redeployment of employees etc. are taken by managers to achieve certain objectives. As against such decisions, managers do take some decisions which are purely personal in nature. However, their impact may not exactly confine to their selves and they may affect the organization also. For example: the manager’s decision to quit the organization, though personal in nature, may impact for the organization.
 

Individual and Group Decisions

 
 
It is quite common that some decisions are taken by a manager individually while some decisions are taken collectively by a group of managers. Individual decisions are taken where the problem is of routine nature, whereas important and strategic decisions which have a bearing on many aspects of the organisation are generally taken by a group. Group decision making is preferred these days because it contributes for better coordination among the people concerned with the implementation of the decision.
 
Decisions may also be further classified under major and minor decisions and simple and complex decisions. However, a detailed description of these types is not necessary because they are almost all similar to the already discussed programmed and non-programmed decisions in respect of importance and impact.

 

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