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Research Methodology - Questionnaire & Sampling

Summary, Merits and Demerits of Questionnaire & Sampling

   Posted On :  21.05.2018 12:41 am

Nowadays questionnaire method of data collection has become very popular.

SUMMARY

 
 
Nowadays questionnaire method of data collection has become very popular. It is a very powerful tool to collect required data in shortest period of time and with little expense. It is scientific too. But drafting of questionnaire is a very skilled and careful work. Therefore, there are certain requirements and essentials which should be followed at the time of framing the questionnaire. They include the following viz., (i) the size of the questionnaire should be small, (ii) questions should be very clear in understanding, (iii) questions should be put in a logical order, questions should have simple meaning etc. Apart from this, multiple choice questions should be asked. Questionnaire should be pre tested before going for final data collection. Information supplied should be cross checked for any false or insufficient information. After all these formalities have been completed, a covering note should accompany the questionnaire explaining various purposes, designs, units and incentives.
 
There are two ways of survey- census survey and Sample survey through which data can be collected. Census survey means total enumeration i.e., collecting data from each and every unit of the universe, whereas sample survey concentrates on collecting data from a few units of the universe selected scientifically for the purpose. Since census method is more time taking, expensive and labor intensive, it becomes impractical to depend on it. Therefore, sample survey is preferred which is scientific, less expensive, less time taking and less labor intensive too.
 
The merits and demerits of the methods are:
 

Merits:

 
It reduces cost, saves time and is more reliable. It provides more detailed information and is sometimes the only method to depend upon for administrative convenience and scientifically.

Demerits:

 

Sometimes samples may not be representative and may give illusory conclusions. There are lack of experts and sometimes it is more difficult than the census method, since there might arise personal bias and the determination of the size of the sample might be very difficult.
 
Apart from these, the essentials of sampling that are to be followed are: samples must be representative, samples must be homogeneous and the number of samples must be adequate. When a researcher resorts to sampling, he intends to collect some data which would help him to draw results and finally take a decision. When he takes a decision it’s on the basis of hypothesis which is precisely an assumption and is prone to two types of errors-Type I Error and Type II Error. When a researcher rejects a correct hypothesis, he commits type I error and when he accepts a wrong hypothesis he commits type II error. The researcher should try to avoid both types of errors but committing type II error is more harmful than type I error.

 

Tags : Research Methodology - Questionnaire & Sampling
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