As in many other areas of human activity, a number of specialized fields in accounting also have evolved besides financial accounting. Management accounting and cost accounting are the result of rapid technological advances and accelerated economic growth. The most important among them are explained below
Tax accounting covers the preparation of tax returns and the consideration of the tax implications of proposed business transactions or alternative courses of action. Accountants specializing in this branch of accounting are familiar with the tax laws affecting their employer or clients and are up to date on administrative regulations and court decisions on tax cases.
This accounting is concerned with the special problems associated with the international trade of multinational business organizations. Accountants specializing in this area must be familiar with the influences that custom, law and taxation of various countries bring to bear on international operations and accounting principles.
Social Responsibility Accounting:
This branch is the newest field of accounting and is the most difficult to describe concisely. It owes its birth to increasing social awareness which has been particularly noticeable over the last three decades or so. Social responsibility accounting is so called because it not only measures the economic effects of business decisions but also their social effects, which have previously been considered to be immeasurable. Social responsibilities of business can no longer remain as a passive chapter in the text books of commerce but are increasingly coming under greater scrutiny. Social workers and people’s welfare organizations are drawing the attention of all concerned towards the social effects of business decisions. The management is being held responsible not only for the efficient conduct of business as reflected by increased profitability but also for what it contributes to social well-being and progress.
Inflation has now become a world-wide phenomenon. The consequences of inflation are dire in case of developing and underdeveloped countries. At this juncture when financial statements or reports are based on historical costs, they would fail to reflect the effect of changes inurchasing power or the financial position and profitability of the firm. Thus, the utility of the accounting records, not taking care of price level changes is seriously lost. This imposes a demand on the accountants for adjusting financial accounting for inflation to know the real financial position and profitability of a concern. Thus emerged a future branch of accounting called inflation accounting or accounting for price level changes. It is a system of accounting which regularly records all items in financial statements at their current values.
Human Resources Accounting:
Human resources accounting is yet another new field of accounting which seeks to report and emphasize the importance of human resources in a company’s earning process and total assets. It is based on the general agreement that the only real long lasting asset which an organization possesses is the quality and caliber of the people working in it. This system of accounting is concerned with, “the process of identifying and measuring
data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties”.