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Human Resources Management - Performance And Potential Appraisal

Recent times the additional methods - Performance And Potential Appraisal

   Posted On :  13.06.2018 12:25 am

Appraisal by results draws its root from management by objective (MBO).

Recent times the additional methods 

Appraisal by Results or Objectives

Appraisal by results draws its root from management by objective (MBO). The various steps involved in appraisal by results are as follows.

1. Appraisal by result is a joint process between superior and his subordinates.

2. The subordinate prepares his plan for specific period usually for one year in the light of the overall plan provided by his superior. The final plan is prepared through mutual consultation.

3. Through mutual consultation, both of them decide the evaluation criteria- that is, what factor will be taken for evaluation of subordinate’s performance.

4. At the end of specific period, normally one year, the superior makes a performance evaluation of subordinates on the basis of mutually agreed criteria.

5. The superior discusses the results of his evaluation with the subordinate, corrective actions, if necessary and mutually agreed targets for the next period would be fixed.

Evaluation of appraisal by results springs from forces that have generated a popular philosophy of management, known as ‘management by objectives’ or ‘management by results’. MBO is not merely a technique of managing but it reflects about the entire philosophy of management. Appraisal by results under MBO is more conducive than appraisal based on traits.


Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) approach gets away from measuring subjective personal traits and instead measures observable, critical behaviors that are related to specific job dimensions. The various steps under BARS are.

i. Identification of Performance Measures

The first step is the identification of performance measures, that is, the outcome of an effective job performance. These measures could be identified by knowledgeable relevant people who may be usually superiors, jobholders and HR personnel or a combination of all of them. They are asked to identify the important dimensions of the job.

ii. Identification of Critical behaviours

Critical behaviours are those which are essential for the performance of the job effectively. These behaviours are generated from different dimensions of the job and are related to various critical incidents of the job. These may be stated in a few short sentences or phrases using the terminology of the job in question.

iii. Retranslation of Critical Behaviours

Various critical behaviours as identified in step (ii) are retranslated, usually by a different group of personnel. In the retranslation process, various critical incidents are classified into clusters with each cluster having similar critical incidents. Those behaviours which are approved by majority of personnel are kept for further development and others discarded. The basic idea of this step is to keep the number of behaviours to a manageable limit and which are more descriptive of the job. The translation process assures the reliability of the critical behaviours consistent with the job dimensions.

iv. Scaling of Critical Behaviours

Those critical behaviours which are included for the performance apprisal during the process of retranslation are given scales usually in numbers with their description. The scales may range from 1 to 7 or from 1 to 9, with each point of a scale demonstrating perceived level of performance. The scale value will be determined on the basis of estimates provided by various persons in the retranslation process.

v. Development of the BARS instrument

The result of arranging various scales for different dimensions of the job (Known as behaviour anchors) produces a vertical scale for each dimension. Then scale is used for performance appraisal.

Merits of BARS method

1. Employees’ behaviours and not their unobservable traits are measured which gives better description of employees.
2. BARS approach is aimed at specific dimensions of job performance

3. The people, who are actually involved with the job, participate in determining the job dimensions.

4. As the evaluation is done in terms of specific behaviours, the appraiser can give objective feedback on how the person performed and on what specific behaviour the concerned person should improve.

Assessment Centers

The concept of assessment centers was started in Germany in 1930s by the War office selection Board for military situation. The objective was to test candidates in a social situation, using number of assessors and a variety of procedures. Gradually this concept crept in to industries and companies. An assessment centre is a central location where managers come together and participate in a number of simulated exercises, on the basis of appraisers. The task Force on Development of Assessment centre standards has recommended the following requirements.

a. Multiple assessment techniques should be used. One of these techniques should be simulation.

b. Multiple trained assessors should be used.

c. Judgment should be based on pooled information from all assessors.

d. Evaluation should be made at a time different from the observation of behaviour.

e. Simulation exercise should be tested for their reliability, validity and objectivity.

f. The dimensions, attributes, characteristics or qualities evaluated by the programme shall be determined by an analysis of relevant job behaviour.


The objectives of Assessment Centers are:
a) For measuring potential for first level supervision, upper management positions and also higher level management positions.

b) For determining the training and development needs of employees

c) For selecting recent college students for entry level positions

d) For making early determination of potential and

e) For assisting in implementing affirmative action goals.

In spite of being a time consuming and costly affair, assessment centre has the following merits:

a. The assessment is based on the direct observation of a relatively large sample of the assesses’ behaviors.

b. The assesses’ behaviours are observed in simulated situations which are close to the actual workplace and

c. Since assessment is based on composite, pooled judgements of several appraisers, personal biases, false inference are minimized.

360 Degree Appraisal

Yet another method which could be used to appraise the performance of an employee is to use 360 degree appraisal. To start with, this method was used in 1992 by the General Electric Company, USA. Now in India Wipro Corporation, Infosys Technologies, Thermax, Thomas Cook etc. are adopting this method.

In 3600 appraisal, appraisal of an employee is done by his superior, his peers, his subordinates clients and outsiders with whom he interacts in the course of his job performance. In this appraisal, besides appraising the performance of the assessee, his other attributes such as talents, behaviour, values, and technical considerations are also subjected to appraisal.

The role of HR department in 3600 appraisal is that of facilitator. The department consolidates the appraisal inputs, identifies the point of consensus, and provides feedback to the appraised so as to overcome the weaknesses pointed out in the appraisal.
Tags : Human Resources Management - Performance And Potential Appraisal
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