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Gender Related Development Index & Human Poverty Index - HPI & GDI - Infrastructure Of The Economy

   Posted On :  06.05.2018 09:11 pm

While hdi measures average achievement, the GDI adjusts the average achievement to reflect the inequalities between men and women. The three components used for the purpose are:

Gender Related Development Index (GDI)

 
 
While hdi measures average achievement, the GDI adjusts the average achievement to reflect the inequalities between men and women. The three components used for the purpose are:
 
  •             Female life expectancy
 
  •             Female adult literacy and gross enrolment ratio
 
  •             Female per capita income
 
 
If gender inequalities were not penalized, the value of GDI and hdi would be the same, but if gender inequalities exist, the value of GDI would be lower than that of HDI. The greater the difference between hdi and gdi, the greater is the gender inequality.
 
From the table (refer GDI column) it may be noted that near gender equality exists in Norway, Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Mexico, Russian Federation, Malaysia, Venezuela, Philippines, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Countries which indicate higher gender inequality are Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran , India , Egypt and Nigeria.

 

 Human Poverty Index (HPI)

 
 
Human development report 1997 introduced the concept of human poverty index, which concentrates on deprivation in three essential elements of human life already reflected in HDI – longevity, knowledge and a decent living standard. The first deprivation is vulnerability to death at a relatively early age and is represented in the HPI by the percentage of people expected to die before age 40. The second deprivation is related to knowledge and is measured by the percentage of adults who are illiterate. The third deprivation relates to a decent standard of living, in particular, overall provisioning. This is represented by a composite of three variables – the percentage of people of people with access to:
 
 
  •             Health services
 
  •             To safe water
 
  •             The percentage of malnourished children under five.
 
It may be noted that in the case of nigeria, 70.2 % Of the population suffers from income poverty, but HPI index is 35.1 %. However, in the case of bangladesh, the situation is totally reversed – HPI 42.2, But income poor population is 36 %. In case of india, proportion of population below international income poverty line is 34.7 %, But human poverty index is 31.4.
 

United Nations Millennium Declaration For 2015

 
 
To Promote HDI:
 
  •             To halve the proportion of the world’s people living on less than $1 a da 
  •             To halve the proportion of the world’s people suffering from hunger
  •             To halve the proportion of the world’s people without access to safe drinking water
  •             To achieve universal completion of primary schooling
  •             To achieve gender equality in access to education
  •             To reduce maternal mortality ratios by three quarters
  •             To reduce under-five mortality rates by two thirds
  •             To halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other major diseases.
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