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Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour - Japanese Management Practices

Techniques of Japanese Management Practices

   Posted On :  19.05.2018 11:05 pm

In Japan, life-time employment means limited upward mobility. Movement is predominantly lateral through job rotation. Promotions are based on seniority.

Techniques
 
 
i.  Job rotation and slow promotion
 
In Japan, life-time employment means limited upward mobility. Movement is predominantly lateral through job rotation. Promotions are based on seniority.
 
ii.  Complex appraisal system
 
In addition to the output, employees are appraised on the basis of traits such as creativity, honesty, seriousness, maturity and cooperation with others. Employees’ performance in the long run is given more importance, since evaluation is done not exactly on the basis of immediate performance. Employees are naturally motivated to demonstrate loyalty and commitment by their attitudes and actions.
 
iv.Emphasis on work groups
 
The Japanese system gives far greater attention to organising tasks around groups than around individuals. Autonomous work teams are constituted. Tasks are assigned to such teams and the group members of the team then decide among themselves the best way for performing the tasks.
 
v. Open communication
 
The Japanese system is inherently designed to foster open communication. Job rotation and emphasis on groups means that employees build an informal network that facilitates extensive face to face communication. The physical work setting is also designed to foster communication. People work in cubicles and in open space which facilitate interaction and open communication.
 
vi. Consensus decision- making
 
In the Japanese model, the manager while taking decisions discusses them to those who may be affected by the decision. When all are familiar with the proposal, a formal request for a decision is made, and as a result of the previous informal preparations, it is easily ratified.
 
vii. Concern for the employee
 
Managers spend a great deal of time talking to employees about everyday matters. They take keen interest in employees’ needs and problems. In fact, the concern for employees is one of the parameters on which managers performance is appraised. Japanese companies offer a wide range of benefits to their employees. Beyond the usual incentives, a comprehensive offering of cultural, athletic, and recreational activities are very common. For instance, an annual calendar of office events might include several overnight trips, monthly Saturday afternoon recreation, and an average of six office parties- all at the company’s expense. In addition, welfare measures like subsidized family housing for married, dormitories for the unmarried, nurseries for pre-school children, scholarships for children, mortgage loans and the like speak a lot about the concern for employees.
 
William Ouchi, an American management thinker, had extensively studied Japanese organisations and gave a name to their management practices, called “theory z”. He strongly advocated for the adaptation of Japanese practices for the American companies to improve productivity. It is appropriate here to understand how Japanese practices differ from American management practices.

 
 

 

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