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Human Resources Management - Employees’ Morale And Motivation

Motivation Potential of a Job – A model - Employees’ Morale And Motivation

   Posted On :  13.06.2018 10:53 pm

Oldham and Hackman (1975) devised a formula for identifying five factors collectively referred to as the Core Job Dimensions or characteristics.

Motivation Potential of a Job – A model

Oldham and Hackman (1975) devised a formula for identifying five factors collectively referred to as the Core Job Dimensions or characteristics. They developed a mathematical index describing the degree to which a job is designed so as to motivate people, as suggested by the jobs characteristics model. It is computed based on employees’ responses to a questionnaire called by the two social scientists as the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS).

The dimensions are as follows

Skill Variety: This dimension of job denotes the extent to which any particular job permits and utilizes a range of skills, abilities and talents of the employees. If a job does not permit the use of variety of skills, then this aspect of motivation could be compensated at the personal or social lives of the employees or in any other part time employment undertaken by a person.

Task Significance: This refers to the importance of the impact that a job has on the lives and prosperity of others, both inside and outside the organization.  For example, a typist habituated to making typing errors, gave an error-free output on the day when he was told the importance of the document he was going to type.

Task Identity: It indicates the extent to which the job involves a “whole” and identifiable piece of work.  According to this aspect, an employee needs to know the whole picture of which he is an inherent component part.

Autonomy: This reflects the extent to which the job provides an employee the freedom, independence and discretion to schedule work and make decisions and formulate procedures to get the job done without interference from others.

Feedback (Knowledge of Results): The extent to which a person gets pointers to success through opinions secured from others as reaction to one’s performance. It might also indicate the extent to which the persons who are working on the job can assess on their own, whether they are doing things right or wrong even as they are performing.

Based on the five dimensions, a formula for motivation potential of a job is arrived at as follows: “Motivation Potential Score (MPS) = (1/3) X (Skill Variety + Task Significance + Task Identity) X (Autonomy X Feedback)”. It may be seen from the above formula that Autonomy and Feedback are two dimensions, which have a multiplier effect on motivation, and hence a greater significance than the other three factors. If one of the two factors is absent in a job, it will have no motivating potential at all, whereas if the skill variety is less or task significance is less, motivation potential of the job could be enhanced by improving the other components to a considerable extent.
 

Porter and Lawler Model of Performance Satisfaction


The model explained by Porter and Lawler is a comprehensive description of motivation. They have viewed motivation, satisfaction and performance as separate variables relating in different ways. According to the model, effort, which is the force of motivation, does not directly lead to performance but is mediated by abilities, traits and role perceptions, followed by rewards and their perceptions. There are four variables in the model namely, effort, performance, rewards and satisfaction.

Effort means the energy exerted by an individual employee for performing a given task. The effort depends on the value of reward and perceived probability of effort-reward linkage. Efforts mediated by traits and abilities and role perception lead to performance. Performance refers to the results measured objectively. It depends on the effort put up by the individual. Rewards are obtained through performance and satisfaction is derived. Rewards may be extrinsic, that is in the form of a secondary derivative of work, or they could be intrinsic, which are inherent in the job itself. Satisfaction is the internal state of being contented depending on the rewards received.
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