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Human Resources Management - Employees’ Morale And Motivation

Motivation - Employees’ Morale And Motivation

   Posted On :  13.06.2018 10:43 pm

Motivation is said to be a combination of all those inner tensions or the needs that we describe as hopes, wishes, desires, fears, and intentions.

Motivation is said to be a combination of all those inner tensions or the needs that we describe as hopes, wishes, desires, fears, and intentions. Stephen P Robbins (1994) has defined motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of efforts towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual need. Motivation includes any inner state that activates and moves people. It invokes the urge or compulsion to do something. It is an inner process that begins with an awareness of a need or a sense of tension and proceeds through the satisfaction of that need or the dispersal of that tension to the awareness of another need or the sense of further tension and so on. Motivated employees could be in a state of tension, to relieve which, they exert effort. Motivation backs employees’ abilities to bring about performance and this could be represented as the following formula: Performance = f (ability X motivation)

Motivation according to Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell (1982) is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, wants and other similar forces. According to the Encyclopedia of Management, the term ‘Motivation’ refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of forces including degree of readiness. Motivation is the result of the interaction between the individual and the situation. Individuals differ in their needs, attitudes and motivational drives, and hence efforts to improve their motivation should also be individualized.


De-motivation is both insidious and debilitating. Disappearance of or reduction in motivation levels is called de-motivation. De-motivated employees would prove a costly liability to an organization. Being able to spot that people are not happy in what they are doing is a prerequisite for motivating them. Eliminating negative attitudes as well as understanding individual needs are the key components in the process of motivating people to work better. When jobs become too specialized or divided into narrow, minute tasks, boredom and frustration could begin. Such frustrations arise out of disappointment or irritation at being thwarted from one’s goals or wants.

Inadequacies in the QWL factors could lead to further de-motivation. Delay in handling grievances expressed repeatedly would take de-motivation to alarming levels and employees might begin to rebel strongly at this stage. Since all managers have to get the work done through others, motivating these significant others is the key to their effectiveness. Hypocrisy, lack of transparency, unfairness or discrimination, frequent changes in the environment, and substandard quality of products or services sold by an organization could be powerful de-motivators.
strong de-motivating factor in manufacturing organizations involves complete compartmentalization of individual’s work into watertight zones, makes the person treated like a piece of equipment or tool that performs only one job. Many a time one finds a total mismatch between the words and the actions of a supervisor or manager. In order to be soothing to the employee, assurances are given about something which cannot be carried out. Such hypocrisy and evilness noticed in the management is one of the strongest de-motivators. A typical hypocrisy would be observed in an organization that is inviting “feedback” with “openness” from the employees, but in fact, using it as a tool to identify the potential rebels in the workforce.

Meaning and Importance of Motivation

The health of an organization depends largely on the motivational forces operating within its personnel. Motivation is concerned with why people choose to do one thing rather than another, at certain times than others and also with the amount of effort or intensity of action that people put into their activities. Motivation can be defined as the will to do, the urge to achieve goals and the drive to excel. Motivators are forces that increase job satisfaction and induce individuals to perform and are underpinned by the individual’s values, beliefs, attitudes, needs and goals. Performance could be viewed as the result of the additive or even multiplying effect that motivation could have on a person’s numerous capabilities. It is therefore natural, that maximum attention is paid at supervisory level to motivate their team members.

Needs and Motivation

The behavior of an individual at a particular time is influenced by his or her needs. Need is a condition of lacking or requiring some necessary thing, either physically or (now) psychologically; destitution, lack of the means of subsistence or of necessaries, poverty. Need is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. The strongest need is likely to have the greatest influence on employees’ behavior. Motivation is said to relate to need in that a person with a particular need will be motivated to engage in behavior that will lead to the gratification or satisfaction of that need.

Types and Techniques of Motivation

When an employee is motivated by the inherent nature of the work rather than what he would get out of doing it, the work is said to be intrinsically motivating the employee. Extrinsic motivation is based on the secondary outcomes of work like pay or reputation. When work is monotonous and drudgery producing, it is more likely to be done for outcomes like money, fame, power, etc., such factors in work are called extrinsic motivators. Motivation could be positive in the form of offering rewards or negative in the form of punishments and warnings. Techniques of motivation includes provision of financial and non-financial incentives, job enrichment, enhancement of employees’ participation in decision making, praise and recognition, delegation and offering job security.

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