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Human Resources Management - HRM-Systems Perspective

HRM and System - HRM-Systems Perspective

   Posted On :  12.06.2018 12:46 am

HRM is a subsystem of organization as a system. Therefore, it must be linked to other sub-systems of the organization.

HRM and System

HRM is a subsystem of organization as a system. Therefore, it must be linked to other sub-systems of the organization. When the level of subsystem are considered, each subsystem can be treated as system. So HRM is a system and therefore, in order to understand it as a system, its features must be identified; its subsystems and their linkages should be scrutinized.

Features of HRM as a System

The following are the features of HRM.

HR Management as a Social System

HRM is a social system and unlike biological or mechanical systems, has the characteristics of social system. HRM as a system consists of many subsystems which are integrated to constitute an entity.

HR Management as Open System

HRM, like any other social system, is an open system. It interacts with environment. Out of this interaction, it takes various resources, allocates and combines these resources to produce desirable outputs which are exported to the environment. Thus HRM works as input-output mediator. These features suggest that HRM is not free to decide the things on its own but due weightage has to be given to the environmental factors affecting the management of an organization.


Organization is an open system. Its survival and growth in a dynamic environment demands an adaptive system which can continuously adjust to changing environment. Management tends to achieve environmental constancy by bringing the external world under control, or bringing internal modification of organizational functioning to meet the needs of the changing world. As there is a provision of feedback mechanism, management can evaluate its performance and take corrective actions. In fact, the basic role of HR management is in terms of its’ adaptability to environment.


HRM as a system is dynamic. It suggests that management attempts at achieving equilibrium in the organization. However, this equilibrium is not static as happens in mechanical systems. Management moves towards growth and expansion by preserving some of the energy. Managerial effectiveness depends on this energy exchange.


HRM is probabilistic and not deterministic. A deterministic model always specifies the use of model in a condition with predetermined results. Therefore, the outcome of an action can be predicted accurately. In the case of probabilistic model, the outcome can be assigned only with probability and not certainly. Management has to function in the face of many dynamic variables and these cannot be absolute predictability of these variables. For example, we make forecast of future events but the forecast is relevant to a certain degree only and not to the level of certainty. This is what HRM takes into account.

Multilevel and Multidimensional

System approach of management points out the multilevel and multidimensional features of HRM. It has both macro and micro approaches. At macro level, it can be applied to suprasystem, say, a business system as a whole. At micro level, it can be applied to a subsystem of an organization. It has the same characteristics at all these levels; suprasystem level, system level, and subsystem level.


HRM is multivariable and involves taking into account many variables simultaneously. This feature of HRM suggests that there is no simple cause – effect phenomenon. Rather an event may be the result of so many variables which themselves are interrelated and interdependent. This aspect of interrelatedness and interdependence makes managing a quite complex process.

An Integrated Approach

Systems approach of HRM takes an integrated view of managing. It identifies the reason for a phenomenon in its wider context taking into account the total factors affecting the phenomenon. In other approaches, a particular phenomenon has been explained in terms of a single factor. HRM tries to integrate the various factors to find out the reasons behind a phenomenon. It emphasizes on how the management of one subsystem of the organization should be taken in relation with others because other subsystems become problem if one subsystem should not be traced into the subsystems only but in a much wider context.

Tags : Human Resources Management - HRM-Systems Perspective
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